Архивы за Декабрь, 2016

Дары волхвов

O. Henry «The Gift of the Magi»

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Hello, everyone!

What is your favourite holiday of the year? Wait! Don’t answer, please. I’ll try to guess. I believe it’s Christmas. It’s magic time full of joy, love and presents, of course.

Do you know who invented the tradition of giving presents? You might have already heard about the Three Wise Men who followed a star to visit Jesus Christ when he was a baby and to give him presents: gold, frankincense, and murrh. This is how the tradition started. Today we are going to read a short story written by O. Henry, an American writer, “The Gift of the Magi”. Hope you will like it.

Дары волхвовThe Gift of the Magi

One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it was in pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time by bulldozing the grocer and the vegetable man and the butcher. Three times Della counted it. One dollar and eighty-seven cents. And the next day would be Christmas.

There was clearly nothing left to do but flop down on the shabby little couch and howl. So Della did it. It is true that life is made up of sobs, sniffles, and smiles, with sniffles predominating.

Della finished her cry and attended to her cheeks with the powder rag. She stood by the window and looked out dully at a grey cat walking a grey fence in a grey backyard. Tomorrow would be Christmas Day, and she had only $1.87 to buy Jim a present. Her Jim. She had been saving every penny she could for months, with this result. Her husband Mr. James Dillingham Young or Jim, as Della called him at home, was paid only $20 per week. Twenty dollars a week doesn't go far. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated. They always are. Many happy hours she had spent planning for something nice for him. Something fine and rare – something worthy of the honour of being owned by Jim.

Suddenly she whirled from the window and stood before the glass. Her eyes were shining brilliantly, but her face had lost its colour within twenty seconds. Rapidly she pulled down her hair and let it fall to its full length.

Дары волхвов

Down fell the brown cascade

Now, there were two treasures in which they both took a mighty pride. One was Jim's gold watch that had been his father's and his grandfather's. The other was Della's hair.

So now Della's beautiful hair fell about her, shining like a cascade of brown waters. It reached below her knee and made itself almost a garment for her. And then she did it up again nervously and quickly. Once she faltered for a minute and stood still while a tear or two splashed on the worn red carpet.

She put on her old brown jacket and old brown hat. With the brilliant sparkle still in her eyes, she ran out of the door and down the stairs to the street.

Where she stopped the sign read: 'Mme Sofronie. Hair Goods of All Kinds.' The old woman bought hair.

«Will you buy my hair?» asked Della, panting.

«I buy hair,» said Madame. «Take your hat off and let's have a look at it.»

Down fell the brown cascade.

«Twenty dollars,» said Madame, lifting the mass with a practiced hand.

«Give it to me quickly,» said Della.

Oh, and the next two hours Della was flying on rosy wings. She was ransacking the stores for Jim's present.

She found it at last. It surely had been made for Jim and no one else. There was no other like it in any of the stores, and she had turned all of them inside out. It was a platinum fob chain simple in design as all good things should be. It was even worthy of The Watch. As soon as she saw it she knew that it must be Jim's. It was like him. Quietness and value — the description applied to both. Twenty-one dollars they took from her for it, and she hurried home with the 78 cents.

***

Дары волхвовAt home Della got out her curling irons, lighted the gas and went to work. Within forty minutes her head was covered with tiny, close-lying curls that made her look wonderfully like a truant schoolboy. She looked at her reflection in the mirror long, carefully, and critically.

«If Jim doesn't kill me,» she said to herself, «before he takes a second look at me, he'll say I look like a Coney Island chorus girl. But what could I do — oh! what could I do with a dollar and eighty-seven cents?»

At 7 o'clock the coffee was made and the frying-pan was on the stove hot and ready to cook the chops. Jim was never late. Della doubled the fob chain in her hand and sat on the corner of the table near the door that he always entered. Then she heard his steps on the stair away down on the first flight, and she turned white for just a moment. She had a habit of saying little silent prayers about the simplest everyday things, and now she whispered: «Please, God, make him think I am still pretty.»

The door opened and Jim stepped in and closed it. He looked thin and very serious. Poor fellow, he was only twenty-two — and to be burdened with a family! He needed a new overcoat and he was without gloves.

Jim stepped inside the door, as immovable as a setter at the scent of quail. His eyes were fixed upon Della, and there was an expression in them that she could not read, and it terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise, nor disapproval, nor horror, nor any of the sentiments that she had been prepared for. He simply stared at her fixedly with that peculiar expression on his face.

Della jumped off the table and went to him.

«Jim, darling,» she cried, «don't look at me that way. I had my hair cut off and sold it because I couldn't have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. It'll grow out again. I just had to do it. My hair grows awfully fast. Say 'Merry Christmas!' Jim, and let's be happy. You don't know what a nice-what a beautiful, nice gift I've got for you.»

«You've cut off your hair?» asked Jim as if he had not arrived at that fact yet.

«Cut it off and sold it,» said Della. «Don't you like me just as well, anyhow? I'm me without my hair, ain't I?»

Jim looked about the room curiously. «You say your hair is gone?» he said, with an air almost of idiocy.

«You needn't look for it,» said Della. «It's sold, I tell you — sold and gone, too. It's Christmas Eve, boy. Be good to me, for it went for you. Maybe the hairs of my head were numbered,» she went on with a sudden serious sweetness, «but nobody could ever count my love for you. Shall I put the chops on, Jim?»

Jim seemed to wake out of his trance quickly. He enfolded his Della. Jim drew a package from his overcoat pocket and threw it upon the table.

«Don't make any mistake, Dell,» he said, «about me. I don't think there's anything in the way of a haircut that could make me like my girl any less. But if you unwrap that package you may see why I was so shocked when I saw you at first.»

White fingers tore the string and paper. And then a scream of joy came out which quickly changed to hysterical tears and wails. For there lay The Combs – the set of combs that Della had worshipped for long in a Broadway window. Beautiful combs, pure tortoise-shell, with jewelled rims – just the shade to wear in the beautiful vanished hair. They were expensive combs, she knew, and her heart had simply craved and yearned  over them without the least hope of possession. And now, they were hers, but the hair was gone.

Дары волхвовShe hugged them to her bosom, and with tears in her eyes and a smile, was able to say: «My hair grows so fast, Jim!» And then Della leaped up like a little cat and cried, «Oh, oh!» Jim had not yet seen his beautiful present. She held it out to him eagerly upon her open palm.

«Isn't it a dandy, Jim? I hunted all over town to find it. You'll have to look at the time a hundred times a day now. Give me your watch. I want to see how it looks on it.»

Instead of obeying, Jim tumbled down on the couch and put his hands under the back of his head and smiled.

«Dell,» said he, «let's put our Christmas presents away and keep them for a while. They're too nice to use just at present. I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs. And now suppose you put the chops on.»

The magi, as you know, were wise men — wonderfully wise men — who brought gifts to the Babe in the manger. They invented the art of giving Christmas presents. Being wise, their gifts were no doubt wise ones. And here I have told you the story of two foolish children who unwisely sacrificed for each other the greatest treasures of their house. But let it be said that of all who give gifts these two were the wisest. Of all who give and receive gifts, such as they are wisest. Everywhere they are wisest. They are the magi.

Helpful Words and Notes

gift – дар, подарок

magi /ˈmeɪdʒaɪ/ – the Three Kings or the Three Wise Menмаги, волхвы. (Словом «волхвы» в Евангелии обозначали магов, пришедших к младенцу Иисусу с дарами, — золотом, ладаном и миррой.)

manger /ˈmeɪndʒə/ ясли

shabby – потертый, потрепанный

couch – подушечка диванная

sob – рыдание

to sniffle – говорить в нос, сопеть

to howl – стонать, завывать

worthy – достойный, стоящий

rare – редкий

to own – владеть; an owner – владелец

powder rag – пуховка

treasure /ˈtreʒə/ – сокровище

to whirl /wɜːl/ – кружиться (зд. метнуться)

to falter /ˈfɔːltə/ – ослабеть, пошатнуться

sparkle /ˈspɑːkl/ –  блеск

to pant – тяжело дышать, задыхаться

to ransack = to look for – искать

fobкармашек для часов

chain – цепочка

quietness and value – скромность и достоинство

curling irons – щипцы для завивки

truant schoolboy – школьник, прогуливающий уроки

a Coney Island chorus girl – a woman who dances in a chorus line as a part of a stage production or play.  Della knows that her hair now looks unnatural and artificially primped. She looks cheap.

prayer /preə/ – молитва

to whisper – шептать

burden – обуза

to be burdened with smth – быть обремененным чем-либо

immovable – неподвижный

quail /kweɪl/ – перепелка

to terrify – ужасать, пугать

disapproval – неодобрение

idiocy /ˈɪdiəsi/ – идиотизм

chop – котлета (отбивная)

to enfold = to hugокутывать, обнимать

rim – край

to vanish – исчезать

to crave – страстно желать

to yearn /jɜːn/ – тосковать по чему-либо

to draw (drew, drawn) – рисовать; тянуть

to wrap /  unwrap – заворачивать в бумагу / разворачивать

wails – вопли, завывания

comb /kəʊm/ – гребень, расческа

tortoise – черепаха (сухопутная)

bosom – грудь

palm /pɑːm/ – ладонь

to obey /əʊˈbeɪ/– слушаться, повиноваться

to tumble – свалиться, скатиться, резко падать

to sacrifice /ˈsækrɪfaɪs/ – жертвовать

wise – wisely – unwisely – неразумно

Exercises

1. Say whether these sentences are true or false. Correct them if they are false.

  • Della wanted to buy Jim a present for his birthday.
  • Della saved the money for a month.
  • Jim was paid $20 per week.
  • Della’s hair was blond.
  • Della agreed to sell her hair for $20.
  • Della found a present for her husband very quickly.
  • Jim did not notice that Della had cut her hair off.
  • The combs were made of tortoise shell.
  • Della threw the combs away.
  • Della’s hair grows very fast.

2. Match the words on the left with their equivalents on the right.

1) shabby             a) сокровище

2) to vanish          b) обнимать, прижимать

3) to obey             c) редкий

4) to own              d) достойный

5) a gift                 e) потертый

6) a treasure          f) владеть

7) to hug               g) исчезать

8) worthy               h) ужасать

9) to terrify            i) повиноваться

10) rare                  j) дар, подарок

3. Form words with the negative prefixes and translate them into Russian. Use them in your own sentences.

dis- : like, agree, obey, appear, prove

mis- : understand, lead, translate, take, pronounce

un- : fortunate, worthy, wrap, button, tidy

il- : legal, logical, literate, legible

im- : possible, moral, literate, mature,  patient

in- : human, visible, official, frequent, sincere

ir- : regular, responsible, rational, resistible, replaceable

 

Веселого Рождества

 

Порядок прилагательных

Порядок прилагательных в английском предложении

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Приветствую Вас, дорогие читатели!

Благодарю всех, кто находит свободную минутку, чтобы ознакомиться с моими статьями.

Сегодня мы поговорим о маленькой французской серебряной чайной ложечке, или почему не существует зеленых больших драконов. Заинтриговала?

большой зеленый дракон

Big Green Dragon

Что общего, спросите Вы, у маленькой ложечки и большого дракона? Когда-то, очень давно, когда Джону Рональду Руэлу Толкину, будущему автору знаменитых произведений в стиле «высокого фэнтези» «Хоббит» и «Властелин колец», было всего семь лет, он написал свой первый рассказ о «зеленом большом драконе». Его мама, прочитав рассказ, заметила, что существование «зеленых больших драконов» в принципе не возможно, даже если они вымышленные существа. Мальчик так расстроился, что его следующий рассказ появился только спустя годы.

Толкин

J.R.R. Tolkien

 

Вот как сам Толкин вспоминает этот эпизод из своей жизни:

I first tried to write a story when I was about seven. It was about a dragon. I remember nothing about it except a philological fact. My mother said nothing about the dragon, but pointed out that one could not say 'a green great dragon', but had to say 'a great green dragon'. I wondered why, and still do.
J.R.R. Tolkien, from a letter to W.H. Auden (7 June 1955)

Теперь, надеюсь, Вы поняли, что сегодня речь пойдет о порядке употребления прилагательных в английском предложении.

Как бы странно это не прозвучало, но многие носители языка, с которыми мне доводилось общаться, не знают ни о каком правиле последовательности прилагательных, но, тем не менее, интуитивно правильно применяют его. Как сказала Carmen Johnson, хозяйка квартиры, где я останавливалась во время своего первого визита в Лондон в 1996 году:  “We just open our mouths and speak.”  Здорово, не правда ли? Вот бы и нам так научиться!

Для начала нужно сказать, что прилагательное – это часть речи, которая обозначает признак предмета и отвечает на вопрос какой? (what?) Обычно прилагательные используются для описания признаков существительного и стоят в предложении перед ним.

Как правило, перед существительным стоит одно-два прилагательных. Фраза, в которой Вы употребили три и более прилагательных, кажется уже неестественной. Чтобы запомнить, в каком порядке нужно расположить прилагательные в английском предложении, предлагаю Вам выучить правило «маленькой французской серебряной чайной ложечки».

a little teaspoon

a little French teaspoon

a little French silver teaspoon

Ну, а если говорить серьезно, то прилагательные должны располагаться следующим образом:

1. Opinion adjectives

Сначала мы употребляем прилагательные, которые выражают наше мнение. Согласитесь, оно может быть разным у разных людей по отношению к одному и тому же объекту, то есть его можно легко изменить:

a boring / interesting film

a beautiful / ugly skirt

an easy / difficult task

tasty / awful soup

a warm / cold day

2. Size adjectives

Затем мы описываем размер предмета : small , little, tiny, big, large, huge, long, short, tall, high, narrow, broad.

3. Age adjectives

Дальше следует рассказать о возрасте: new, old, young, ancient, modern, 5-year-old.

4. Shape / style adjectives

Теперь переходим к описанию формы или стиля предмета:

a round / square / oval table

triangular /traɪˈæŋɡjələ/ — треугольный

rectangular /rekˈtæŋɡjələ/ — прямоугольный

straight / curly hair — прямые / кудрявые волосы

an aquiline /ˈækwɪlaɪn/ nose – орлиный нос

snub nose – курносый

a curved back chair –  стул с изогнутой спинкой

a baggy / skinny / ripped jeans — мешковатые / для худых /рваные джинсы

a loose / tight sweater – свободный / облегающий свитер

sleeveless dress – платье без рукавов

5. Colour / pattern adjectives

И только теперь называем цвет / узор предмета:  a blue T-shirt, a plum-coloured dress, a mint scarf, mottled – пестрый, spotted – в крапинку, paisley /ˈpeɪzli/ – яркий узор из изогнутых линий, striped – в полоску, polka dotted – в горошек.

NB! Обратите внимание, что если предмет состоит из двух цветов, то между ними употребляется союз and”, а если предмет трехцветный, то первое прилагательное отделяется запятой: black and white checkered /ˈtʃekəd/ hat – шляпа в черно-белую клетку; white, blue and red flag.

Об оттенках различных цветов в английском языке читайте в статье Colours in English.

6. Origin adjectives

Подошло время рассказать о происхождении предмета – откуда собственно ноги растут!:  French, Thai /taɪ/, Chinese, Russian, Czech /tʃek/ , Murano, Turkish, British, Irish, American, German,  Italian, Brazilian.

7. Material adjectives

Затем описываем из какого материала сделан предмет: metal, plastic, wooden, paper, brick, stone, silk, cotton, leather /ˈleðə/, woolen, cashmere /ˈkæʃmɪə/, denim, polyester/ˌpɒliˈestə/, silver, gold, bronze, iron /aɪən/.

8. Purpose adjectives

И в заключение называем предназначение этого предмета, то есть для какой цели его используют: sports shoes, wedding dress, cookery book, tennis ball, toy car, mountain bike, fish slice (лопатка для торта!).

Итак, суммируем. Чтобы Ваша речь звучала естественно, прилагательные нужно употреблять, соблюдая следующий порядок: мнение – размер – возраст – форма – цвет – происхождение – материал – цель, то есть, от более общего значения, которое можно легко изменить, к более частному, которое изменить сложно.

Порядок прилагательных

 

Перед существительным может стоять еще и числительное, называя количество описываемых предметов. В этом случае оно занимает место перед прилагательным.

e. g. I have got three little Russian wooden matryoshkas.

e. g. She will put on a pair of new flat white Italian shoes for her birthday party.

flat shoes — туфли без каблука на плоской подошве

Порядок прилагательных в предикативной позиции

Существует ряд прилагательных, которые употребляются после глагола to be (существительное после них не употребляется). В этом случае порядок таких прилагательных менеe строгий.

to be right / to be wrong

to be happy / to be sad

to present / to be absent

to be cold / to be hot

to be ill / to be well

to be nervous / to be calm

to be polite / to be rude

to be angry / to be kind

to be hungry / to be full

to be interested in smth

to be bored with smth

to be tired

to be annoyed

to be married

to be divorced

to be excited

to be pleased

to be scared

to be absent-minded

e. g. Our teacher is patient and kind but sometimes absent-minded. /

Though our teacher is sometimes absent-minded, she is kind and patient.

e. g. He is cold, hungry and angry. / He is hungry, angry and cold.

Магический O-S-A-S-C-O-M-P

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