Елена Шрамкова

Елена Шрамкова

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St.Patrick's Day

St. Patrick's Day

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Saint Patrick is the patron saint and national apostle of Ireland. St Patrick is credited with bringing Christianity to Ireland. Most of what is known about him comes from his two works; the Confessio, a spiritual autobiography, and his Epistola, a denunciation /dɪˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃən/ осуждение of British mistreatment of Irish Christians.

According to different versions of his life story it is said that he was born in Britain, around 385AD. His parents Calpurnius and Conchessa were Roman citizens living in either Scotland or Wales. As a boy of 14 he was captured and taken to Ireland where he spent six years in slavery herding sheep. He returned to Ireland in his 30s as a missionary among the Celtic pagans.

Many people ask the question «Why is the Shamrock the National Flower of Ireland?» The reason is that St. Patrick used it to explain the Holy Trinity to the pagans. Saint Patrick is believed to have been born in the late fourth century, and is often confused with Palladius, a bishop who was sent by Pope Celestine in 431 to be the first bishop to the Irish believers in Christ.

In the custom known as “drowning the shamrock”, the shamrock that has been worn on a lapel or hat is put in the last drink of the evening.

Saint Patrick is most known for driving the snakes from Ireland. It is true there are no snakes in Ireland, but there probably never have been – the island was separated from the rest of the continent at the end of the Ice Age. As in many old pagan religions, serpent symbols were common and often worshipped. Driving the snakes from Ireland was probably symbolic of putting an end to that pagan practice. While not the first to bring christianity to Ireland, it is Patrick who is said to have encountered the Druids at Tara and abolished their pagan rites. The story holds that he converted the warrior chiefs and princes, baptizing them and thousands of their subjects in the “Holy Wells” that still bear this name.

There are several accounts of Saint Patrick’s death. One says that Patrick died at Saul, Downpatrick, Ireland, on March 17, 460 A.D. His jawbone was preserved in a silver shrine and was often requested in times of childbirth, epileptic fits, and as a preservative against the “evil eye.” Another account says that St. Patrick ended his days at Glastonbury, England and was buried there. The Chapel of St. Patrick still exists as part of Glastonbury Abbey. Today, many Catholic places of worship all around the world are named after St. Patrick, including cathedrals in New York and Dublin city.

St. Patrick’s Day Facts

  • Patrick’s Day is observed on the 17th of March and it celebrates St Patrick who is said to have died on that date.
  • In Ireland people wear small bunches of shamrocks on their clothes to celebrate the holiday. Children wear orange, white and green badges, and women wear green ribbons.
  • The Irish flag is green, orange and white.
  • Four-leaf clovers are considered to be lucky. Each leaf means something: hope, faith, love and luck.
  • There are 10, 000 three-leaf clovers for every four-leaf clover.
  • The traditional symbols for St. Patrick’s Day are the shamrock, leprechauns, a harp /hɑːp/арфа, green, the Celtic cross, and the Blarney Stone.
  • A toast for St Patrick’s Day, “May the roof above us never fall in, and may we friends beneath it never fall out.”
  • In 1903, St Patrick's Day became an official public holiday in Ireland.
  • The first St Patrick's Day parade in Ireland was held inWaterford in 1903.
  • The first St Patrick's Day parade took place in Russia in 1992. Since 1999, there has been a yearly «Saint Patrick's Day» festival in Moscow and other Russian cities such as St Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Voronezh, and Volgograd. In 2017, theRussian Orthodox Church added the feast day of Saint Patrick to its liturgical calendar to be celebrated on 30 March.

Legend of the Blarney Stone

Blarney Castle is a home of the Blarney Stone.

The legend says that an old woman cast a spell on the stone to reward a king who had saved her from drowning/ˈdraʊnɪŋ/ утопление.

Kissing the stone while under the spell gave the king the ability to speak sweetly and convincingly.

St.Patrick's Day

The Blarney Stone

It is difficult to reach the stone.  Kissers have to lie on their back and bend backward holding iron bars for support.

The word “blarney” means “clever flattering talk”.

 

Fun Time!

Let’s make a leprechaun!

leprechaun /ˈleprəkɔːn/ is a type of fairy in Irish folklore. They are usually depicted as little bearded men, wearing a coat and hat, who partake in mischief /ˈmɪstʃɪf/ шалость озорство. They are solitary /ˈsɒlɪtəri/ одинокий creatures who spend their time making and mending shoes and have a hidden pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. If captured by a human, they often grant three wishes in exchange for their freedom. 

For this you need:

  • green, black, white and yellow construction paper
  • a glue stick
  • scissors
  • markers
  • orange wool for felting to make a beard
  1. Make a hat out of green construction paper.
  2. Glue on a black stripe with a yellow buckle.
  3. Cut a face out of white paper and glue a hat to the top of it.
  4. Draw eyes, a nose, and a smile with a black marker.
  5. Arrange the orange beard around his face first and then stick it.
  6. There you have a cute little leprechaun for St. Patrick’s Day!

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ОГЭ Задания по чтению Вариант 1

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Готовимся к ОГЭ вместе!

Открытый банк заданий ФИПИ

Раздел 2 Задания по чтению

Формат задания

ОГЭ Задания по чтениюЗадание 9 – тест на установление соответствий между заголовками и текстом

Максимальный балл – 7 баллов

Задания 10 – 17 – тест на установление соответствия приведенных утверждений прочитанному тексту (True/False/Not stated)

Максимальный балл – 8 баллов

Рекомендуемое время на выполнение заданий по чтению – 30 минут

Максимальный балл за правильное выполнение всех заданий Раздела 2 (Чтение) – 15 баллов

Читайте полезные советы и рекомендации по выполнению заданий по чтению здесь.

Задание 9

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А–G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

  1. The birthplace of the city
  2. Multifunctional construction
  3. The first traffic jams
  4. A perfect location
  5. Safety gates
  6. Defeating pollution
  7. Navigation season
  8. The royal birds

A. Almost  2,000 years ago, the army of Ancient Rome landed on the coast of Britain and headed north. Soon they came to a wide, deep river. The army could neither walk across it nor find an alternative route. The only solution was building a bridge.  The Romans found a place where the river was relatively narrow and built a bridge. Then they founded a settlement, which they called Londinium. Today it is known as London.

B. The Romans soon discovered that Londinium was an ideal site for a port. Their bridge prevented large ships from going up the river, so all trading ships had to stop and unload at Londinium. It made Londinium an important trading centre and stimulated the growth and development of the city.

C. The first London bridge over the Thames was built of wood – and then rebuilt time and time again. Later, a stone bridge was constructed. By the 1350s there were nearly 200 houses and shops on top of the bridge, and the road across it was very narrow. It was very difficult for carriages, horses and people to move across the bridge. They often couldn’t pass one another and had to spend hours on the bridge.

D. When the Thames flooded, it covered London with water. After a bad flood in 1953, people began to look for a way to control the river. In 1982 the Thames Barrier was opened. When its gates are raised, they form a steel wall more than half a kilometre long across the Thames. It prevents flood water from reaching London. More than 90 times, the Thames Barrier has saved the capital from flooding.

E. Nowadays, Tower Bridge is one of the most famous bridges in the world. The walkway between the two bridge towers provides a perfect sightseeing platform to enjoy a magnificent view over London.  Inside the towers there is an exhibition, which tells the history of the bridge via photos, films, and other media. Tower Bridge also performs its original function of providing a road across the River Thames.

F. In Britain, swans have privileged status. Since the 1100s, all unmarked swans on any public lakes or rivers in the country have belonged to the Crown. The swans on the River Thames are called Mute Swans. They have a bright orange beak with a black spot on the top. Every July, a special ceremony called “Swan Upping” takes place on the Thames at Windsor. All the swans are caught and their markings are checked and recorded.

G. Nowadays, the River Thames is the cleanest river in the world that flows through a big city. This is a great achievement because only fifty years ago the river was so dirty and poisoned that it was declared biologically dead. Special plants to clean the water were built in the 1950s. Soon, special laws were issued to stop factories letting their dirty water go into the river. Strict government measures have saved the river.

Запишите в таблицу выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Текст A B C D E F G
Заголовок            

Задания 10 – 17

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений 1017 соответствуют содержанию текста (1  True), какие не соответствуют (2  False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3  Not stated). В поле ответа запишите одну цифру, которая соответствует номеру правильного ответа.

Sports in Great Britain

It is interesting how many of today’s sports games originated in Britain – football, rugby, tennis, boxing, rowing and horse racing among them. Of course, horse racing was popular with the Greeks and Arabs long before the British began to put them into practice; and people had been playing football in one form or another for thousands of years all over the world. But it was the British who created special rules for these sports and sports games.

Football is a good example. In the Middle Ages people in Europe, Japan and Asia all played some forms of the game. A sort of football was also very popular in England, especially as a contest between villages. But at that time there were very few rules. When the students of English schools started to play football, rules then became necessary. They were changed several times and by the middle of the 19th century football had become very much the game that we know and like today. By the way, the first serious football rules were written at Cambridge University.

A similar story can be told about some other sports. Why did this happen in Britain before other countries? There are some possible explanations: after the Norman invasion of 1066, Britain was quite a peaceful country. As a result people had time to develop sports. Later, after Britain’s industrial revolution, English factories were based on highly organized work and strict time keeping. The same discipline was applied to sport. So uniforms, referees and punishments were introduced to football and other games. British authorities thought that team games were good training for future military and industrial careers.

Every country has its own list of favourite sports. What is the British list? There are lots of games apart from football. Schoolgirls, for example, play a game which seems a lot like basketball. It is called netball. Netball is different from basketball in many details: for example, the ball is lighter, the court is bigger and netball has seven players in each team (not five). There is something very strange about netball – it is never played by boys. There is no biological reason for this, it is simply a tradition. It is popular throughout the English-speaking world, and the Australians and New Zealanders usually win the competitions.

But the most famous and popular British sport is cricket. Cricket is an important part of English summer life. You can watch it all day on TV or even listen to it on the radio. News programmes keep you up-to-date with the score. Men, when they meet, always exchange a few words about the state of the game.

One of cricket’s distinguishing features is that the games are very long. In an ordinary game at a boys’ school it takes up to a whole afternoon. But the big international games are up to five days long.

10. Football was the most popular game in the Ancient World.

1) True      2) False     3) Not stated

Ответ:

11. The rules for modern football were created in Great Britan.

1) True      2) False     3) Not stated

Ответ:    

12. Allthe students had to play football and other team games at British schools.

1) True      2) False     3) Not stated

Ответ:  

13. Basketball and netball are the same game under different names.

1) True      2) False     3) Not stated

Ответ:  

14.  Netball was invented in a British boarding school for girls.

1) True      2) False     3) Not stated

Ответ:  

15. Teams from Great Britain always win the international netball competitions.

1) True      2) False     3) Not stated

Ответ:  

16. The British mass media pay lots of attention to cricket.

1) True      2) False     3) Not stated

Ответ:  

17. According to the rules, a game of cricket lasts no longer than an hour and a half.

1) True       2) False     3) Not stated

Ответ:  

 

По окончании выполнения заданий 9–17 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответа в задании 9 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Выполнив предварительно задания по чтению самостоятельно, проверьте себя по ключам.

Ответы к Заданию 9: 1435286

Ответы к Заданиям 10 – 17

10     3

11     1

12     3

13     2

14     3

15     2

16     1

17     2

Good luck in your exam!

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