ЕГЭ Чтение

ЕГЭ 2015 Демонстрационный вариант ФИПИ Чтение

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На этой странице Вы можете выполнить задания по чтению из Демонстрационного варианта ЕГЭ 2015, подготовленного Федеральным государственным бюджетным научным учреждением «Федеральный Институт Педагогических Измерений».

 

© Демонстрационный вариант ЕГЭ 2015 г. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК, 11 класс. 

Раздел 2 Чтение

Задание 10

 

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

 

  1. When we don’t sleep
  2. Not only for humans
  3. How dreaming helps
  4. When we dream
  5. Why dreams can be scary
  6. What we feel dreaming
  7. How we forget dreams
  8. How we remember dreams

 

A.

Even though our dreams may feel like they last for hours and hours, we hardly spend more than two hours dreaming each night, which means a person spends a total of nearly six years dreaming throughout a lifetime. In general there are four phases of the sleep cycle and all dreaming occurs practically at the final phase. Each of these sleep cycles lasts approximately 60 to 90 minutes and may repeat several times throughout the night.

B.

Anxiety is the most popular emotion experienced in dreams. Many people dream of falling, which is often connected to something in our lives that is going in the wrong direction. In addition, dreams of being chased are very common and are linked to avoidance. Also people report dreams about their teeth falling out, which is related to the words and communication we might have in real life.

C.

Dreaming helps people make sense of the information and events that occur in their lives. Dreams play an important role in processing and remembering information that we absorb daily. Also, they help reduce stress and even solve problems. It’s very possible to work through real-life problems while dreaming at night. In addition, dreams provide a lot of important content and meaning that can be used to inspire and direct our lives during the day.

D.

Nearly 5 to 10% of adults have nightmares. There are several reasons for it, for example when people start taking certain medications or when they withdraw from drugs. Some physical conditions, such as stress or illness, can also be a trigger. However, in some cases adults may have frequent nightmares that are unrelated to their everyday lives, which may signify that they are more creative, sensitive, and emotional than the average person.

E.

There is no person who does not have dreams, but not everybody recalls them. The most vivid dreams happen during the Rapid Eye Movement sleep stage when the brain is extremely active and the eyes move back and forth quickly underneath the eyelids. Although dream recall varies from person to person, some people have little or no recollection of the content, and around 90% of dreams are gone following the first 10 minutes of waking up.

F.

Scientists have found that animals also dream and their subconscious thoughts are connected to real experiences. Animals’ dreams are complex, containing long sequences of events. Animals’ brains share the same series of sleeping states as the brain of human beings. Analyzing animals’ dreams and the content of their dreams may help scientists treat memory disorders and develop new ways for people to learn and retain information more effectively.

G.

Only five minutes after the end of a dream and half of the content is likely to vanish from our memories. It’s not that dreams aren’t important enough to keep in mind, but other things tend to get in the way. Dream researcher L. Strumpell believes that dreams disappear from our memories for a number of factors. For example, we may not recall dream images that lack intensity, association or repetition, which are usually needed for dream recall.

 

Ответ:

       A        B         C        D         E        F        G

 

© Демонстрационный вариант ЕГЭ 2015 г. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК, 11 класс.

Задание 11

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

 

Promoting language learning

The European Union (EU) is committed to supporting the rights of its citizens to personal and professional mobility, and their ability to communicate with each other. It does so by A_____________________ to promote the teaching and learning of European languages. These programmes have at least one thing in common: they cover cross-border projects involving partners from two, and often three or more, EU countries. The EU programmes are designed to complement the national education policies of member countries. Each government is responsible for its own national education policy, B_____________________. What the EU programmes do is to create links between countries and regions via joint projects,

C_____________________. Since 2007 the main programmes have been put under the overall umbrella of the EU’s lifelong learning programme. All languages are eligible for support

under this programme: official languages, regional, minority and migrant languages, D_____________________. There are national information centres in each country, E_____________________. The cultural programmes of the EU also promote linguistic and cultural diversity in a number of ways. The “Media” programme funds the dubbing and

subtitling of European films for F _____________________. The “Culture” programme builds cross-cultural bridges by supporting the translation of modern authors into other EU languages.

 

  1. and the languages of the EU’s major trading partners
  2. which includes language teaching and learning
  3. cinemas and television in other EU countries
  4. which enhance the impact of language teaching and learning
  5. funding a number of educational programmes
  6. and encouraging people to learn new languages
  7. where details about the application procedures are given

 

Ответ:

          A           B           C           D           E           F
           

 

© Демонстрационный вариант ЕГЭ 2015 г. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК, 11 класс.

Задания 12 – 18  

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

 

Space could solve water problems

Have you ever tasted saltwater? I guess you have and if so, you will agree with me that it’s not very refreshing. In fact, drinking more than a few cups worth can kill you.

According to the United States Geological Survey, whose mission is to collect and disseminate reliable, impartial, and timely information that is needed to understand the nation’s water resources, about ninety-seven percent of the water on our planet is saltwater; the rest is stored in lakes, rivers, glaciers and aquifers underground. Moreover, only about one-third of the world’s potential fresh water can be used for human needs. As pollution increases, the amount of usable water decreases.

Water is the most precious and taken-for-granted resource we have on Earth. It is also one of the most threatened resources. Increased population and possible climate change will put more and more strain on supplies of this vital resource as time goes on. What could we do in this situation? Though it may seem like science fiction, the solution could lie in outer space.

I’m not saying we’re going to be teleporting to a spring on the other side of the galaxy or colonizing another planet just to have longer showers – it’s much more mundane than that. What we could achieve realistically in this century is the successful use of the solar system’s rare metals and water, barring the invention of the matrix.

You may be surprised to learn that the metal in your keys, coins, cell phone, computer, car and everywhere else, originally came to this planet from space. When Earth formed, the heavy metals sank to the center and formed a solid core. The lighter elements formed the mantle and the crust we live on. Asteroids and comets that struck the Earth brought water and metals to the surface.

There are thousands of asteroids orbiting near Earth. Most asteroids are made of rock, but some are composed of metal, mostly nickel and iron. Probes could be sent out to these to identify useful ones. Then larger probes could push them towards the Earth where they can be handled in orbit.

In order to fuel ships and probes, we simply need to find a source of water, such as a comet or the surface of the moon. We collect the water and pass an electric current through it from a solar panel. The water separates into oxygen and hydrogen, which in liquid form is a powerful rocket fuel.

Is this really possible? We may soon find out. Private company SpaceX has already started delivering equipment to the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS is proof that countries once at each other’s throats, like America and Russia, can work together and pull off multi-billion dollar projects.

Recently, a company called Planetary Resources Inc. made the news for getting big names like Google and Microsoft to invest in exploring asteroids for material gain. Although it will take many decades, it is wise to put the gears in motion now.

We’ve already landed probes on the surface of asteroids and taken samples from them. We can put something as large as the ISS, which weighs just short of 500 tons, according to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in orbit.

We can make a half-million-mile round-trip to get rocks from the moon. We can do all of these things already. They just need to be applied and developed in a smart way.

12. What problem is raised in the article?

1) Cooperation in space.

2) Threats of climate change.

3) Danger of drinking salt water.

4) Lack of water supplies on Earth.

Ответ:

13. According to the author, the information published in the US Geological Survey is

meant to …

1) assure the nation that there is still enough of usable water.

2) help to monitor the state of the country’s water resources.

3) demonstrate the quality of water the nation uses.

4) warn the public about the dangers of water pollution.

Ответ:

14. The author thinks that outer space …

1) is dangerous because of asteroids.

2) is a source of important supplies.

3) is not studied properly.

4) should be colonized.

Ответ:

15. According to the author, the space water sources may be used for …

1) fuel production.

2) water supplies for spaceships.

3) moon exploration.

4) the production of electricity.

Ответ:

16. The Google and Microsoft (paragraph 9) are mentioned to …

1) explain how Planetary Resources Inc. became famous.

2) prove that asteroids can be commercially attractive.

3) show that space research is important for computer science.

4) prove that asteroids can interfere with the Internet.

Ответ:

17. The expression “put the gears in motion” in “…it is wise to put the gears in

motion now” (paragraph 9) means …

1) to explore.

2) to begin.

3) to move.

4) to invest.

Ответ:

18. What idea is stressed in the last two paragraphs?

1) There is room for further achievements in space exploration.

2) Asteroids are unique objects for scientific research.

3) Only smart administration can manage space programs.

4) International Space Station is the heaviest object in space.

Ответ:

 

По окончании выполнения заданий 10–18 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

 

Проверьте себя по ключам.

Key answers: Task 10           4635827

Key answers: Task 11           524173

Key answers:

12   4

13   2

14   2

15   1

16   2

17   2

18   1

 

© 2015 Федеральная служба по надзору в сфере образования и науки Российской Федерации

ЕГЭ Раздел 2 Чтение Вариант 1

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Раздел 2 Чтение

Изучив советы по выполнению заданий ЕГЭ из Раздела 2 по чтению (см. Демонстрационный вариант ЕГЭ 2016 Английский язык, Раздел 2 Чтение), выполните следующие тренировочные варианты.

Вариант 1

Задание 10

Установите соответствие между текстами A – G и заголовками 1 – 8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

 

  1. Mixing styles
  2. Internet sensation
  3. Short lifetime
  4. Money worries
  5. Celebrity style
  6. Cheaper to buy
  7. Rebels no more
  8. Shopping frenzy

A

Youth sub-culture isn’t what it used to be. In the 1960s, youths who were protesting against their parents or society dressed a certain way to show their anger, or to feel like they belonged to something. Nowadays, parents are more accepting of their children, and society is more accepting of different people. There is less of a need to act out, so there are fewer sub-cultures as a result.

B

There are still a few youth sub-cultures these days. One phenomenon is haul girls – teenage girls who shop till they drop, then come home with a big ‘haul’, usually several bags of clothes. Then they make a video of what they bought, and not just any old video, either. They put great effort into it, with editing and a storyline. It’s their way of showing off what they love to do.

C

In the old days, it took quite a lot of cash to get the look you desired. If you wanted to be Goth, going out and buying black boots, black clothes and black jewellery would cost a considerable amount. It’s all become more affordable now, so you can belong to one youth sub-culture one week and another the next, more or less.

D

There are fewer differences between youth sub-cultures than there used to be. In the old days, a hippie looked like a hippie. A punk looked like a punk, and nothing else. But it seems that the youth of today sometimes combines looks. One example is seapunk, which is punk but much more colourful and with a bit of hip-hop added. At least it’s still very creative!

E

A youth sub-culture is defined by many things. It’s the need to stand out, or the need to protest, or the need to belong. These days, kids are quite worried about their future. University has become very expensive, and the job market isn’t as strong as it used to be. How can anyone focus on creating a unique style when they’re facing such deep financial concerns?

F

Sometimes a youth sub-culture can come out of nowhere. Take Molly Soda, for example. Molly Soda is a teenage girl who posted some short films on YouTube that quickly became highly popular. Her style of dress, with her blue hair and nose piercing, is now copied by thousands of girls who find it cool. They’re called Molly Soda girls, from a youth sub-culture born overnight!

G

It is true that youth sub-cultures are like trends. They are born, they gain popularity, and then soon enough, everyone’s joined in. At that point, they are finished. This timeline used to be much longer than it is today. Now, with social media, trends spread much faster, which means they die a death much faster, too. A sub-culture is lucky if it lasts a whole year these days!

Ответ :

       A        B        C        D        E        F        G

Задание 11

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

 

                                                      Evolution

 

The theory of evolution says that all living things on Earth, A ____________, come from a common ancestor by slowly changing down the generations. Darwin suggested that the way living things changed over time is through natural selection. This is the better survival and reproduction of those B ____________ . Fitting into the place where you live is called adapting. Those who fit best into the place where they live, the best adapted, have the best chance to survive and breed. Those who are less well-adapted C ____________ . If they do not survive well enough to raise young, that means they do not pass on their genes. In this way, the species gradually changes.

The first chapter of the Origin deals with domesticated animals, D ____________ . Darwin reminded readers of the huge changes mankind had made in its domestic animals, which were once wild species. The changes were brought about by selective breeding – choosing animals with desirable characters to breed from. This had been done generation after generation, E __________ . Perhaps what man had done deliberately, might happen in nature, where some would live more offspring than others.

Darwin noticed that although young plants or animals are very similar to their parents, F ___________ and there is always a range of shape, size, colour and so on. Some of these differences the plant or animal may have got from their own ancestors, but some are new and caused by mutations.

 

  1. including plants, animals and microbes
  2. tend not to survive
  3. such as cattle and dogs
  4. it would have a better chance to survive
  5. that best fit their environment
  6. no two are exactly the same
  7. until our modern breeds were produced

 

Ответ:

         A          B          C          D          E          F

 

Задания 12 – 18

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. 

Crash Landing

At that time the people of Britain would have been shocked to know that women were flying their most famous war plane. But the fact is that the ATA (Air Transport Auxiliary) had over 100 women pilots who delivered more than 300,000 air craft during the war. We had to fly the Spitfires from the factories and deliver them to airfields dotted around the south of England. Normally we would be flying in daylight with good visibility conditions. That is why we were never given instrument training as our instructors told us that with all the restrictions of war time, there was no time or money to spare for this luxury.

Occasionally we had to fly other aircraft – without any kind of additional training at all. Probably some high ranking, non-flying military official somewhere said that all aircraft were exactly the same to fly. Well – I can assure you that this is not true. With unfamiliar aircraft we had ten minutes to read an instruction booklet called the “Ferry Pilot Notes”. And that was it. We had to climb in, fire up, taxi and then take off in completely unknown flying machines.

That particular day, the day I came so close to death, was my twenty-first birthday. I had no cake or candles that day and my two friends and myself shared some chocolate – the only luxury available in those days. We drank apple juice, and ate the apples and cheese. We entertained ourselves with silly stories. But at one solemn moment we also made a toast to absent friends and remembered the girls who had died delivering aircraft.

In the morning we were driven to the factory and my worst fears were realised. Instead of a lovely new and familiar Spitfire I had a bulky Torpedo bomber. We all hated these as several had crashed without any clear reason why. I was able to take the Ferry Pilot Notes into the canteen and studied them over breakfast. I had a very uneasy feeling in my stomach which had nothing to do with the breakfast I was consuming. I had birthday kisses from the other girls but it only made me feel worse.

At about 11 I was given my flight plan and it was time to go. I looked at the sky. There was a strange quality to the light that I didn’t like and I was worried. With no instrument training, fog or mist made flying incredibly dangerous and absolutely terrifying. With a heavy heart I fired up the engine.

Within 20 minutes I was approaching the river Forth. But I couldn’t see the river as clouds thickened up around me. I took the aircraft lower looking for a glimpse of the ground. At one point I was sure that I was virtually at ground level but I couldn’t see a thing. It was too dangerous to continue. I could hear my heart beating even over the roar of the engine.

When it happened – it happened really quickly. The plane hit water. I didn’t see anything. I was thrown against my straps – and then a flood of cold seawater in my eyes and mouth. I was a mile out to sea!

I was certain I was going to die. Funnily enough – I was perfectly calm. I even thought that my ATA insurance payment would really be a big help to my Mother. But then survival instinct kicked in. I was still alive – and close to shore. I had no life jacket or any survival gear but I was a good swimmer. I was certain there were no bones broken and I didn’t have to swim far. I was picked up by a fishing boat that I had narrowly missed in the fog. And in the end I got a real birthday drink after all – a cup of spiced, dark rum.

12. Women pilots from ATA had no instrument training because

1) it was an auxiliary air force.

2) they were not supposed to fly in low visibility.

3) their main job was to deliver Spitfires to airdromes.

4) there was no money for this during the war.

Ответ:

13. The Ferry Pilot Notes were instruction booklets written to

1) help women pilots.

2) explain how to fly the plane.

3) ensure further training.

4) explain how to behave in dangerous situations.

Ответ:

14. The narrator and her friends had no cake because

1) it was still the day before her birthday.

2) they preferred apples and cheese.

3) it was hard to obtain one in wartime.

4) it was a tradition to eat it in the pilot canteen.

Ответ:

15. The narrator was unhappy to take a Torpedo bomber because

1) it was a bulky aircraft.

2) she preferred to fly Spitfires.

3) she didn’t know how to fly it.

4) the plane was notorious.

Ответ:

16. The narrator flew with a heavy heart because she

1) didn’t feel healthy.

2) found her flying plan incredibly dangerous.

3) was worried there might be poor visibility.

4) was in a blue mood.

Ответ:

17. The narrator’s words “It was too dangerous to continue” refer to her decision to

1) keep on flying lower.

2) make an emergency landing on the water.

3) continue the flight.

4) ignore her heart problems.

Ответ:

18. The moment the plane crash landed the narrator

1) was sure she could swim to shore.

2) prepared to die.

3) wished she had a life jacket.

4) worried about her mother.

Ответ:

По окончании выполнения заданий 10–18 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Проверьте себя по ключам.

Key answers Task 10       7861423

Key answers Task 11       152376

Key answers:  12 – 4

13 – 2

14 – 3

15 – 4

16 – 3

17 – 1

18 – 2

 

Good luck in your exam!

 

 

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