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ЕГЭ 2015 Демонстрационный вариант ФИПИ Чтение

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На этой странице Вы можете выполнить задания по чтению из Демонстрационного варианта ЕГЭ 2015, подготовленного Федеральным государственным бюджетным научным учреждением «Федеральный Институт Педагогических Измерений».

 

© Демонстрационный вариант ЕГЭ 2015 г. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК, 11 класс. 

Раздел 2 Чтение

Задание 10

 

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

 

  1. When we don’t sleep
  2. Not only for humans
  3. How dreaming helps
  4. When we dream
  5. Why dreams can be scary
  6. What we feel dreaming
  7. How we forget dreams
  8. How we remember dreams

 

A.

Even though our dreams may feel like they last for hours and hours, we hardly spend more than two hours dreaming each night, which means a person spends a total of nearly six years dreaming throughout a lifetime. In general there are four phases of the sleep cycle and all dreaming occurs practically at the final phase. Each of these sleep cycles lasts approximately 60 to 90 minutes and may repeat several times throughout the night.

B.

Anxiety is the most popular emotion experienced in dreams. Many people dream of falling, which is often connected to something in our lives that is going in the wrong direction. In addition, dreams of being chased are very common and are linked to avoidance. Also people report dreams about their teeth falling out, which is related to the words and communication we might have in real life.

C.

Dreaming helps people make sense of the information and events that occur in their lives. Dreams play an important role in processing and remembering information that we absorb daily. Also, they help reduce stress and even solve problems. It’s very possible to work through real-life problems while dreaming at night. In addition, dreams provide a lot of important content and meaning that can be used to inspire and direct our lives during the day.

D.

Nearly 5 to 10% of adults have nightmares. There are several reasons for it, for example when people start taking certain medications or when they withdraw from drugs. Some physical conditions, such as stress or illness, can also be a trigger. However, in some cases adults may have frequent nightmares that are unrelated to their everyday lives, which may signify that they are more creative, sensitive, and emotional than the average person.

E.

There is no person who does not have dreams, but not everybody recalls them. The most vivid dreams happen during the Rapid Eye Movement sleep stage when the brain is extremely active and the eyes move back and forth quickly underneath the eyelids. Although dream recall varies from person to person, some people have little or no recollection of the content, and around 90% of dreams are gone following the first 10 minutes of waking up.

F.

Scientists have found that animals also dream and their subconscious thoughts are connected to real experiences. Animals’ dreams are complex, containing long sequences of events. Animals’ brains share the same series of sleeping states as the brain of human beings. Analyzing animals’ dreams and the content of their dreams may help scientists treat memory disorders and develop new ways for people to learn and retain information more effectively.

G.

Only five minutes after the end of a dream and half of the content is likely to vanish from our memories. It’s not that dreams aren’t important enough to keep in mind, but other things tend to get in the way. Dream researcher L. Strumpell believes that dreams disappear from our memories for a number of factors. For example, we may not recall dream images that lack intensity, association or repetition, which are usually needed for dream recall.

 

Ответ:

       A        B         C        D         E        F        G

 

© Демонстрационный вариант ЕГЭ 2015 г. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК, 11 класс.

Задание 11

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

 

Promoting language learning

The European Union (EU) is committed to supporting the rights of its citizens to personal and professional mobility, and their ability to communicate with each other. It does so by A_____________________ to promote the teaching and learning of European languages. These programmes have at least one thing in common: they cover cross-border projects involving partners from two, and often three or more, EU countries. The EU programmes are designed to complement the national education policies of member countries. Each government is responsible for its own national education policy, B_____________________. What the EU programmes do is to create links between countries and regions via joint projects,

C_____________________. Since 2007 the main programmes have been put under the overall umbrella of the EU’s lifelong learning programme. All languages are eligible for support

under this programme: official languages, regional, minority and migrant languages, D_____________________. There are national information centres in each country, E_____________________. The cultural programmes of the EU also promote linguistic and cultural diversity in a number of ways. The “Media” programme funds the dubbing and

subtitling of European films for F _____________________. The “Culture” programme builds cross-cultural bridges by supporting the translation of modern authors into other EU languages.

 

  1. and the languages of the EU’s major trading partners
  2. which includes language teaching and learning
  3. cinemas and television in other EU countries
  4. which enhance the impact of language teaching and learning
  5. funding a number of educational programmes
  6. and encouraging people to learn new languages
  7. where details about the application procedures are given

 

Ответ:

          A           B           C           D           E           F
           

 

© Демонстрационный вариант ЕГЭ 2015 г. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК, 11 класс.

Задания 12 – 18  

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

 

Space could solve water problems

Have you ever tasted saltwater? I guess you have and if so, you will agree with me that it’s not very refreshing. In fact, drinking more than a few cups worth can kill you.

According to the United States Geological Survey, whose mission is to collect and disseminate reliable, impartial, and timely information that is needed to understand the nation’s water resources, about ninety-seven percent of the water on our planet is saltwater; the rest is stored in lakes, rivers, glaciers and aquifers underground. Moreover, only about one-third of the world’s potential fresh water can be used for human needs. As pollution increases, the amount of usable water decreases.

Water is the most precious and taken-for-granted resource we have on Earth. It is also one of the most threatened resources. Increased population and possible climate change will put more and more strain on supplies of this vital resource as time goes on. What could we do in this situation? Though it may seem like science fiction, the solution could lie in outer space.

I’m not saying we’re going to be teleporting to a spring on the other side of the galaxy or colonizing another planet just to have longer showers – it’s much more mundane than that. What we could achieve realistically in this century is the successful use of the solar system’s rare metals and water, barring the invention of the matrix.

You may be surprised to learn that the metal in your keys, coins, cell phone, computer, car and everywhere else, originally came to this planet from space. When Earth formed, the heavy metals sank to the center and formed a solid core. The lighter elements formed the mantle and the crust we live on. Asteroids and comets that struck the Earth brought water and metals to the surface.

There are thousands of asteroids orbiting near Earth. Most asteroids are made of rock, but some are composed of metal, mostly nickel and iron. Probes could be sent out to these to identify useful ones. Then larger probes could push them towards the Earth where they can be handled in orbit.

In order to fuel ships and probes, we simply need to find a source of water, such as a comet or the surface of the moon. We collect the water and pass an electric current through it from a solar panel. The water separates into oxygen and hydrogen, which in liquid form is a powerful rocket fuel.

Is this really possible? We may soon find out. Private company SpaceX has already started delivering equipment to the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS is proof that countries once at each other’s throats, like America and Russia, can work together and pull off multi-billion dollar projects.

Recently, a company called Planetary Resources Inc. made the news for getting big names like Google and Microsoft to invest in exploring asteroids for material gain. Although it will take many decades, it is wise to put the gears in motion now.

We’ve already landed probes on the surface of asteroids and taken samples from them. We can put something as large as the ISS, which weighs just short of 500 tons, according to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in orbit.

We can make a half-million-mile round-trip to get rocks from the moon. We can do all of these things already. They just need to be applied and developed in a smart way.

12. What problem is raised in the article?

1) Cooperation in space.

2) Threats of climate change.

3) Danger of drinking salt water.

4) Lack of water supplies on Earth.

Ответ:

13. According to the author, the information published in the US Geological Survey is

meant to …

1) assure the nation that there is still enough of usable water.

2) help to monitor the state of the country’s water resources.

3) demonstrate the quality of water the nation uses.

4) warn the public about the dangers of water pollution.

Ответ:

14. The author thinks that outer space …

1) is dangerous because of asteroids.

2) is a source of important supplies.

3) is not studied properly.

4) should be colonized.

Ответ:

15. According to the author, the space water sources may be used for …

1) fuel production.

2) water supplies for spaceships.

3) moon exploration.

4) the production of electricity.

Ответ:

16. The Google and Microsoft (paragraph 9) are mentioned to …

1) explain how Planetary Resources Inc. became famous.

2) prove that asteroids can be commercially attractive.

3) show that space research is important for computer science.

4) prove that asteroids can interfere with the Internet.

Ответ:

17. The expression “put the gears in motion” in “…it is wise to put the gears in

motion now” (paragraph 9) means …

1) to explore.

2) to begin.

3) to move.

4) to invest.

Ответ:

18. What idea is stressed in the last two paragraphs?

1) There is room for further achievements in space exploration.

2) Asteroids are unique objects for scientific research.

3) Only smart administration can manage space programs.

4) International Space Station is the heaviest object in space.

Ответ:

 

По окончании выполнения заданий 10–18 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

 

Проверьте себя по ключам.

Key answers: Task 10           4635827

Key answers: Task 11           524173

Key answers:

12   4

13   2

14   2

15   1

16   2

17   2

18   1

 

© 2015 Федеральная служба по надзору в сфере образования и науки Российской Федерации

ЕГЭ 2016 Английский язык Устная часть Задание 3

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В этой статье представлены дополнительные образцы заданий Устной части ЕГЭ по английскому языку. Как Вы уже знаете, в задании 3 Вам предстоит выбрать одну из трех фотографий и описать ее, используя предложенный план.

Время на подготовку — 1.5 минуты.

Продолжительность ответа — 2 минуты.

Task 3. Imagine that while travelling during your holidays you took some photos. Choose one photo to present to your friend.  

You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak not more than 2 minutes.

In your talk remember to speak about:

Формулировка задания в 2015 году.

  • when you took the photo (когда ВЫ сделали фото)  
  • what/who is in the photo (кто/что на фото)
  • what is happening (что происходит на фото)
  • why you took photo (почему вы сделали это фото)
  • why you decided to show the picture to your friend (почему вы решили показать эту фотографию своему другу)
Обратите внимание на изменения, которые произошли в формулировке задания №3 в устной части ЕГЭ по английскому языку в 2016 г. 
  • when and where the photo was taken (когда и где было сделано фото, то есть ЛЮБОЙ человек мог сделать это фото: вы, ваши друзья или родственники)  
  • what/who is in the photo (кто/что на фото)
  • what is happening (что происходит на фото)
  • why you keep the photo in your album (почему вы храните это фото в своем альбоме)
  • why you decided to show the picture to your friend (почему вы решили показать эту фотографию своему другу)

 You have to talk continuosly, starting with:

 I've chosen photo number...

Sample answer (photo № 1)

I've chosen photo number 1.  

Speaking part Task 3

photo 1

(Обязательно начните ответ с этой фразы, предварительно выбрав номер фотографии).

  •  I took this photo in one of the beautiful parks in Edinburgh when I was on my trip to Scotland two years ago. It is quite amazing, isn't it? 
  • In the foreground of the photo you can see two girlfriends spending their free time hanging around. They might study or work together.  They seem to be in a good mood. They both are wearing all Scottish style suits. Moreover, the girl on the left has got an incredible hat which perfectly matches the rest of her clothing. The most stunning thing that caught my eye was her hair done in dreadlocks. In her right hand she is carrying a black handbag made of leather.  
  • In the background of the picture there are a lot of green trees with bushy (thick) crown. It was early September and it happened to be a very warm and sunny day. But nevertheless some people put on their jackets because the weather is very changeable and unpredictable on the British Isles. The man on the right who is wearing a checked shirt might be a tourist because he has got a blue backpack. As you can see at this particular moment the place is not overcrowded, so I think, it is great to enjoy your leisure time with your nearest and dearest in such a place. 
  • I keep this picture in my album to recollect the pleasant moments of my journey to Scotland
  • I asked the girls a permisssion to take their picture because I liked the style they were dressed up and I decided to show it to you because you are also keen on wearing unusual and freakish hats and maybe, the picture will give you some new ideas.
  • That is all I wanted to say. (обязательная фраза для экзаменатора, свидетельствующая о завершении коммуникации)

Useful Vocabulary

to hang around — болтаться без дела

to match — подходить (по цвету)

to catch one's eye — привлекать внимание

stunning = incredible — сногсшибательный, потрясающий, невероятный

dreadlocks — дреды

bushy crown  - густая крона деревьев

freakish = strange = weird — причудливый, странный

to wear — носить одежду

to carry — держать (нести) вещи в руках

Уважаемые коллеги и владельцы образовательных сайтов (порталов)!

Все материалы сайта находятся в свободном доступе для пользователей сети. Более того, использование материалов сайта приветствуется.

WARNING!

При копировании и размещении полной или частичной информации на сторонних ресурсах, в проектных работах и презентациях

активная ссылка на сайт SMASHTRASH.RU обязательна. 

 Sample answer (photo № 2):

I've chosen photo number 2.  

Speaking part Task 3

photo 2

(Обязательно начните ответ с этой фразы, предварительно выбрав номер фотографии).

  •  I took this photo during my winter holidays when we went to the ski resort in the Caucasus. After the Winter Olympic Games 2014, Sochi attracts lots of tourists both from Russia and from around the world.
  • In the foreground of the picture you can see two children: a boy and a girl. They came here from Novosibirsk. They told me that they had started to ski when they were only three years old, that's why they look very confident on the snowy mountain slopes. The children are wearing bright ski suits made of special fabrics that protect them from cold and at the same time are very light that helps them move quickly. They also have all the necessary skiing equipment for this kind of sport such as alpine skis, plastic boots with special bindings, helmets, ski poles and goggle mounts.
  • In the background of the picture you can see mountain peaks covered with snow and some kind of pines. You can't see the mountains quite well from behind the clouds but I should say it is a common phenomenon in this area.
  • At the very particular moment the children are learning a new downhill technique. And now they stopped for a while to take breath. Sometimes I saw them landing in a fall but they went to square one again and again. They didn't give up, so I should admit that they have got strong willpower. As you can see they look very healthy and happy. I believe that it's very useful to take up to sport from childhood. This will teach you to overcome difficulties in life, will teach you to win or to lose.
  • I keep this photo in my album because we made friends with the family from Novosibirsk and their cute kids and I want to remember the beautiful moments of my vacation.
  • I decided to show you this photo because I want you to appreciate these two young sportsmen and the beauty of the Caucasus Mountains (nature).
  • That is all I wanted to say. (обязательная фраза для экзаменатора, свидетельствующая о завершении коммуникации)   

Useful Vocabulary

mountain slope — горный склон

skiing equipment — лыжное снаряжение

alpine skis — горные лыжи

bindings — крепления для лыж

helmet — шлем

ski pole — лыжная палка

goggles — защитные очки

common phenomenon — обычное (распространенное) явление

downhill technique — техника спуска

to take breath — перевести дух ( отдышаться)

landing in a fall — приземляться в падении

to go to square one  (idiom) —  начинать все с самого начала

to give up (idiom) — сдаваться, отказываться

willpower — сила воли

 

 Sample answer (photo № 3)

 I've chosen photo number 3.  

Speaking part Task 3

photo 3

(Обязательно начните ответ с этой фразы, предварительно выбрав номер фотографии).

  • I took this photo in London Zoo when I was on my trip to the UK a year ago. To tell the truth, I’m not very good at photography but this picture turned out to be a beautiful one.
  • In the foreground of the picture you can see a colony of pelicans. You can’t but agree with me that pelicans are large birds with very long beaks. They have a long neck and short stout legs with webbed feet. The tail is short and square.  They have pale plumage with some grey feathers on the wings.
  • On the left of the picture there is a pond where the birds can swim. The zoo keeper told us a lot of interesting things about pelicans. She explained us that some species could make their nests in the trees while the others nest on the ground. It was interesting to know that they can fly but cannot dive because of their light skeleton. I also learnt that pelicans live up to 25 years in the wild and up to 40 years in captivity. But the most amazing fact is that pelicans never store their food in their throat pouch contrary to popular folklore. They use it for catching fish.
  • In the background of the picture you can see a girl taking photos. At this particular moment the birds are cleaning their feathers after being fed. Guess what! We were allowed to give them some fish and it was really exciting! All in all the weather was warmish and I had a great time there.
  • I took this photo because I had never seen those birds before in real life and wanted to remember all places I had visited in London. That's why I keep it in my album.
  • I decided to show you this photo because you are interested in photography and have got a big collection of snapshots of  birds. I think, it would be great if you could add my picture to it.
  • That’s all I wanted to say. (обязательная фраза для экзаменатора, свидетельствующая о завершении коммуникации) 

Useful Vocabulary

beak —  клюв

tail — хвост

wing — крыло

feather — перо

plumage [´plu:midʒ] —  оперение 

nest (to nest) — гнездо (гнездиться)

throat pouch — горловой мешок

Основные ошибки, которые допускают учащиеся при выполнении этого задания:

  • описание трех картинок вместо одной;
  • отсутствие вступительной и заключительной фраз;
  • неправильная интерпретация содержания картинки;
  • отсутствие высказывания своего мнения о сюжете картинки;
  • отсутствие разговорных клише при описании картинки;
  • фонетические и лексико-грамматические ошибки в ответе.

Ознакомиться с заданиями Устной части из Демонстрационного варианта ЕГЭ 2016 года, примерными образцами их выполнения, изменениями в формулировке к Заданию 3 Вы можете здесь

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