Раздел 2 Чтение
Изучив советы по выполнению заданий ЕГЭ из Раздела 2 по чтению (см. Демонстрационный вариант ЕГЭ 2016 Английский язык, Раздел 2 Чтение), выполните следующие тренировочные варианты.
Установите соответствие между текстами A – G и заголовками 1 – 8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
- Mixing styles
- Internet sensation
- Short lifetime
- Money worries
- Celebrity style
- Cheaper to buy
- Rebels no more
- Shopping frenzy
Youth sub-culture isn’t what it used to be. In the 1960s, youths who were protesting against their parents or society dressed a certain way to show their anger, or to feel like they belonged to something. Nowadays, parents are more accepting of their children, and society is more accepting of different people. There is less of a need to act out, so there are fewer sub-cultures as a result.
There are still a few youth sub-cultures these days. One phenomenon is haul girls – teenage girls who shop till they drop, then come home with a big ‘haul’, usually several bags of clothes. Then they make a video of what they bought, and not just any old video, either. They put great effort into it, with editing and a storyline. It’s their way of showing off what they love to do.
In the old days, it took quite a lot of cash to get the look you desired. If you wanted to be Goth, going out and buying black boots, black clothes and black jewellery would cost a considerable amount. It’s all become more affordable now, so you can belong to one youth sub-culture one week and another the next, more or less.
There are fewer differences between youth sub-cultures than there used to be. In the old days, a hippie looked like a hippie. A punk looked like a punk, and nothing else. But it seems that the youth of today sometimes combines looks. One example is seapunk, which is punk but much more colourful and with a bit of hip-hop added. At least it’s still very creative!
A youth sub-culture is defined by many things. It’s the need to stand out, or the need to protest, or the need to belong. These days, kids are quite worried about their future. University has become very expensive, and the job market isn’t as strong as it used to be. How can anyone focus on creating a unique style when they’re facing such deep financial concerns?
Sometimes a youth sub-culture can come out of nowhere. Take Molly Soda, for example. Molly Soda is a teenage girl who posted some short films on YouTube that quickly became highly popular. Her style of dress, with her blue hair and nose piercing, is now copied by thousands of girls who find it cool. They’re called Molly Soda girls, from a youth sub-culture born overnight!
It is true that youth sub-cultures are like trends. They are born, they gain popularity, and then soon enough, everyone’s joined in. At that point, they are finished. This timeline used to be much longer than it is today. Now, with social media, trends spread much faster, which means they die a death much faster, too. A sub-culture is lucky if it lasts a whole year these days!
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.
The theory of evolution says that all living things on Earth, A ____________, come from a common ancestor by slowly changing down the generations. Darwin suggested that the way living things changed over time is through natural selection. This is the better survival and reproduction of those B ____________ . Fitting into the place where you live is called adapting. Those who fit best into the place where they live, the best adapted, have the best chance to survive and breed. Those who are less well-adapted C ____________ . If they do not survive well enough to raise young, that means they do not pass on their genes. In this way, the species gradually changes.
The first chapter of the Origin deals with domesticated animals, D ____________ . Darwin reminded readers of the huge changes mankind had made in its domestic animals, which were once wild species. The changes were brought about by selective breeding – choosing animals with desirable characters to breed from. This had been done generation after generation, E __________ . Perhaps what man had done deliberately, might happen in nature, where some would live more offspring than others.
Darwin noticed that although young plants or animals are very similar to their parents, F ___________ and there is always a range of shape, size, colour and so on. Some of these differences the plant or animal may have got from their own ancestors, but some are new and caused by mutations.
- including plants, animals and microbes
- tend not to survive
- such as cattle and dogs
- it would have a better chance to survive
- that best fit their environment
- no two are exactly the same
- until our modern breeds were produced
Задания 12 – 18
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.
At that time the people of Britain would have been shocked to know that women were flying their most famous war plane. But the fact is that the ATA (Air Transport Auxiliary) had over 100 women pilots who delivered more than 300,000 air craft during the war. We had to fly the Spitfires from the factories and deliver them to airfields dotted around the south of England. Normally we would be flying in daylight with good visibility conditions. That is why we were never given instrument training as our instructors told us that with all the restrictions of war time, there was no time or money to spare for this luxury.
Occasionally we had to fly other aircraft – without any kind of additional training at all. Probably some high ranking, non-flying military official somewhere said that all aircraft were exactly the same to fly. Well – I can assure you that this is not true. With unfamiliar aircraft we had ten minutes to read an instruction booklet called the “Ferry Pilot Notes”. And that was it. We had to climb in, fire up, taxi and then take off in completely unknown flying machines.
That particular day, the day I came so close to death, was my twenty-first birthday. I had no cake or candles that day and my two friends and myself shared some chocolate – the only luxury available in those days. We drank apple juice, and ate the apples and cheese. We entertained ourselves with silly stories. But at one solemn moment we also made a toast to absent friends and remembered the girls who had died delivering aircraft.
In the morning we were driven to the factory and my worst fears were realised. Instead of a lovely new and familiar Spitfire I had a bulky Torpedo bomber. We all hated these as several had crashed without any clear reason why. I was able to take the Ferry Pilot Notes into the canteen and studied them over breakfast. I had a very uneasy feeling in my stomach which had nothing to do with the breakfast I was consuming. I had birthday kisses from the other girls but it only made me feel worse.
At about 11 I was given my flight plan and it was time to go. I looked at the sky. There was a strange quality to the light that I didn’t like and I was worried. With no instrument training, fog or mist made flying incredibly dangerous and absolutely terrifying. With a heavy heart I fired up the engine.
Within 20 minutes I was approaching the river Forth. But I couldn’t see the river as clouds thickened up around me. I took the aircraft lower looking for a glimpse of the ground. At one point I was sure that I was virtually at ground level but I couldn’t see a thing. It was too dangerous to continue. I could hear my heart beating even over the roar of the engine.
When it happened – it happened really quickly. The plane hit water. I didn’t see anything. I was thrown against my straps – and then a flood of cold seawater in my eyes and mouth. I was a mile out to sea!
I was certain I was going to die. Funnily enough – I was perfectly calm. I even thought that my ATA insurance payment would really be a big help to my Mother. But then survival instinct kicked in. I was still alive – and close to shore. I had no life jacket or any survival gear but I was a good swimmer. I was certain there were no bones broken and I didn’t have to swim far. I was picked up by a fishing boat that I had narrowly missed in the fog. And in the end I got a real birthday drink after all – a cup of spiced, dark rum.
12. Women pilots from ATA had no instrument training because
1) it was an auxiliary air force.
2) they were not supposed to fly in low visibility.
3) their main job was to deliver Spitfires to airdromes.
4) there was no money for this during the war.
13. The Ferry Pilot Notes were instruction booklets written to
1) help women pilots.
2) explain how to fly the plane.
3) ensure further training.
4) explain how to behave in dangerous situations.
14. The narrator and her friends had no cake because
1) it was still the day before her birthday.
2) they preferred apples and cheese.
3) it was hard to obtain one in wartime.
4) it was a tradition to eat it in the pilot canteen.
15. The narrator was unhappy to take a Torpedo bomber because
1) it was a bulky aircraft.
2) she preferred to fly Spitfires.
3) she didn’t know how to fly it.
4) the plane was notorious.
16. The narrator flew with a heavy heart because she
1) didn’t feel healthy.
2) found her flying plan incredibly dangerous.
3) was worried there might be poor visibility.
4) was in a blue mood.
17. The narrator’s words “It was too dangerous to continue” refer to her decision to
1) keep on flying lower.
2) make an emergency landing on the water.
3) continue the flight.
4) ignore her heart problems.
18. The moment the plane crash landed the narrator
1) was sure she could swim to shore.
2) prepared to die.
3) wished she had a life jacket.
4) worried about her mother.
По окончании выполнения заданий 10–18 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.
Проверьте себя по ключам.
Key answers Task 10 7861423
Key answers Task 11 152376
Key answers: 12 – 4
13 – 2
14 – 3
15 – 4
16 – 3
17 – 1
18 – 2
Good luck in your exam!